What is the difference between the processes of; Incineration, Thermal Oxidation and Flaring?

The difference lies in what remains of the original, volatile organic compounds (VOC) of the waste upon completion of the process

GAS, VAPOUR & LIQUID WASTE

INCINERATION

An Incineration process must release less than 1.5% of of the VOC introduced with the waste stream to atmosphere upon completion of the process; less than 0.1% when dealing with more toxic waste

To achieve these VOC destruction efficiencies an Incinerator requires two important design elements;

1. An enclosed volume which will contain all products of the oxidation reation, at temperature, for the predicted duration of the process

2. Control over Combustion Air flow and Auxiliary Fuel gas flow to maintain a minimum operating temperature; usually between 870oC (1,600oF) and 1,050oC (1925oF).  Temperature is maintained by fuel heat release even if the waste becomes inert or its flow interrupted


THERMAL OXIDATION

A Thermal Oxidation process must release less than 15% of of the VOC's contained in the waste stream to atmosphere upon completion of the process

To achieve these VOC destruction efficiencies a Thermal Oxidizer requires two important design elements;

1. An enclosed volume which will contain all products of the oxidation reation, at temperature, for the predicted duration of the process.  This can range between 0.33-seconds to 1-second depending on the VOC

2. Control over Combustion Air flow to maintain a maximum operating temperature; usually between 670oC (1,250oF) and 870oC (1600oF). Air is being used as a controlled 'quench' at high heat release.  Yet without auxiliary fuel, the process temperature cannot be elevated should the waste become inert or the flow interrupted

Because of its inability to add heat energy to the oxidation reaction, a Thermal Oxidizer can Not be used for the disposal of BTEX or other aromatic compounds.  A Thermal Oxidizer can be used for the controlled disposal of some liquid wastes, within quite specific design constraints

HIGH VOLUME, WASTE GAS THERMAL OXIDIZER - ENCLOSED FLARE

HIGH VOLUME, WASTE GAS THERMAL OXIDIZER - ENCLOSED FLARE

High Volume Gas disposal is required quite frequently in the Hydrocarbon Resource industry, at all stages of recovery, transport and processing

To address not only the high volume but also the rapidly varying composition and molecular weight of gasses during a Well Test or Maintenance Blowdown, I have developed a series of packaged, fully instrumented Thermal Oxidizers

Both units, pictured above, have two or three stage enclosures which permit transport at normal height, then stationary  operation with a substantially increased, refractory lined volume with the enclosures elevated

Combustion Air flow to the Waste Gas Burners is controlled by the reduction process temperature, which maintains VOC destruction efficiency for the lower portion of the unit turndown.  Oxidizer enclosure above the Burner is lined with high temperature refractory to ensure the process temperature remains elevated while preventing radiation heat loss

REFRACTORY LINING AND WASTE GAS BURNER NOZZLES IN THERMAL OXIDIZERS AND ENCLOSED FLARES

FLARE

Flaring as a method of Gas disposal leaves an average 40% of the VOC untouched or only partially oxidized, a sub-process that is shown to form aromatic compounds out of a paraffin hydrocarbon waste stream

Flaring remains a necessary process for the safe disposal of highly volatile gas during plant emergencies, vessel evacuations, pipeline blowdown, well testing and similar, short-duration events

HIGH VOLUME, ENCLOSED, TRANSPORTABLE GAS FLARE

Enclosed Flares are designed to retain the base of a high volume gas flame within a high temperature environment to accelerate the oxidation reaction and reduce the flame volume

At moderate gas flow the flame volume is mostly or entirely contained within the refractory lined enclosure, offering VOC destruction efficiencies similar to aThermal Oxidizer

Overall these Enclosed Flares provide a dramatic reduction in visible flame volume and combustion noise over an open air diffusion flare

A FULL RANGE OF GAS FLARE SYSTEMS


SOLID WASTE INCINERATION

DUAL CHAMBER, CONTROLLED-AIR, BATCH LOADING INCINERATORS

50#/Hr (25 Kg/Hr) to 500#/Hr (225 Kg/Hr) in Vertical and Horizontal Configurations

For Continuous Operation and High Waste Throughput, please see; WASTE-TO-ENERGY

DUAL CHAMBER, CONTROLLED-AIR, SOLID WASTE INCINERATOR - HORIZONTAL

DUAL CHAMBER, CONTROLLED AIR INCINERATOR - VERTICAL

Most common Waste Reduction rates for small incinerators fall between 50#/Hr (25Kg/Hr) and 250#/Hr (110 Kg/Hr).  These are typically used for Remote Clinical Waste reduction, Veterinary Cremation, Camp Waste reduction, Metals Refining and Evidence/Document Disposal

SERIES 'SBL' DUAL CHAMBER, CONTROLLED AIR INCINERATOR - PATHOLOGICAL

SERIES 'SBL' DUAL CHAMBER, CONTROLLED AIR SOLID WASTE INCINERATOR - PATHOLOGICAL

SMALL SOLID WASTE INCINERATOR DATA


PATHOLOGICAL WASTE INCINERATION AND CREMATION

Heavy Duty, High Speed thermal reduction of pathological and high moisture content waste

Customized, monolithically cast Hearth, High Energy Burners, a unique Reduction Process, Exhaust Quenching and a Pneumatic Loading/Clean-out Door are some of the things that separates 'Cremation' from typical solid waste incineration

PATHOLOGICAL WASTE INCINERATOR - CREMATION FURNACE

CREMATION FURNACE OPERATION

CREMATION FURNACE - ELEVATIONS

CREMATION FURNACE - PLAN - LAYOUT

PATHOLOGICAL WASTE - CREMATION FURNACE DEVELOPMENT